Benzalkonium chloride Applications Benzalkonium chloride is an organic substance used primarily as an antimicrobial and preservative and secondly as a surfactant. it is also used in many cases due to its properties. Let's have a look at its various applications in industry. What is benzalkonium chloride like? Benzalkonium chloride, also known by BZK, BKC, BAK, BAC acronyms, and known as Zephiran, is a cationic surfactant. It consists of an organic salt that is classified as a quaternary ammonium compound and has antiseptic properties, ranging from colorless to pale yellow color, depending on the degree of its purity. Other names for benzalkonium chloride Benzalkonium chloride (BACs) is also known as benzyl ammonium alkyl chlorides, quaternary alkyl dimethyl (phenyl methyl) ammonium chlorides, quartz disinfectant, BAC, benzalkonium chlorides and QAC. Benzalkonium Chloride Production The synthesis of benzalkonium chloride is done in such a way that dimethyl dodecyl amine hydrogen bromide is converted to dodecyl bromide after the synthesis of dodecanal, and then reacts with dimethylamine and becomes benzalkonium chloride, which one can say that the formulation and synthesis technique of benzalkonium chloride monomer belongs to the organic synthesis based on the synthesis of the third amide alkyl dimethyl, benzyl chloride and thiocarbamide. Benzalkonium Chloride Properties This material, which has many properties and applications, also has unique properties, such as, the following: •The compound benzalkonium chloride dissolves easily in ethanol and acetone. • the process of its dissolution in water is slow and must be neutral to slightly alkaline to dissolve aqueous solutions. • Concentrated solutions of this substance have a little odor and a bitter taste, such as, almonds. • Its standard concentrates are produced in 50% and 80% weight solutions and are sold in different brands, such as, BC50, BC80, BAC50, BAC80, etc. • This substance dissolves easily in ethanol and acetone and therefore has many applications in medicine and pharmacology. • Benzalkonium chloride solution makes foams when shaken. • Its aqueous solution is neutral to slightly alkaline. Benzalkonium Chloride Applications This material has many properties and has numerous applications in industry, which can be mentioned as the following: Benzalkonium application in pharmaceutical industries Benzalkonium chloride type BAC50 is used as a preservative in the production of ophthalmic, nasal, and sensory drugs, as well as to optimize sensitivity and strength in the formulation. This disinfectant is also used in creams to treat burns and wounds, as well as, wound washing sprays, such as bactin, and throat tonsils and mouthwashes. Benzalkonium usage in cosmetics Benzalkonium chloride, as an antibacterial agent has replaced triclosan in cosmetic and disinfectant soaps, the toxicity and dangers of which are well known to the body when absorbed through the skin, while its properties are recognized in a wide range of disinfectants. Hygienic skin and wipes are well known and are used in many personal care products, such as, hand sanitizers and cosmetics. Water and wastewater treatment by benzalkonium chloride This substance is widely used in formulas related to water pools and water treatment to remove harmful algae. Benzalkonium application in Aquaculture Benzalkonium chloride BAC is used to purify water in aquatic ponds to kill fish parasites, disinfect water and to prevent infectious diseases in fish and oysters, etc. Benzalkonium application in wood protection Since BAC has very high antifungal and anti-algal properties and, along with other compounds, is effective in compound formulations, it is used to protect wood in the environment as a more suitable alternative for chloride-containing biocides. Benzalkonium usage in paper and pop industry Benzalkonium chloride is used as a general antiseptic to control dough and to manage odor in pop mills. It is also used for increasing quality in paper napkins, giving paper products strength and anti-electricity properties. Benzalkonium application in textile industry Benzalkonium is used as a protector of natural fibers against algae and fungi and as an insect repellent, and is also known as a fixed preservative in dyeing of acrylic fibers with cationic dyes. Benzalkonium application in Leather industry It is used to soften, moisturize, dye leather and it is used as an anti-algae and anti-mildew material. Benzalkonium application in housekeeping and gardening Benzalkonium chloride is a disinfectant against mold, moss, fungus and algae and is therefore used to clean all types of surfaces in homes, greenhouses, gardens, wooden paths and decks. Benzalkonium application in Chemicals Due to their property to accumulate in oil / water, air / water, emulsifier / de-emulsifier systems, etc., its compounds are widely used in the chemical industry as precipitators, and phase transfer catalysts. Benzalkonium usage in polymer coating industry Quaternary ammonium compounds are widely used as static, emulsifiers and preservatives in coating industry. Other applications of benzalkonium chloride • Egg disinfectant before transferring to hatchery • In hatcheries for disinfection of hatcheries and disinfection of poultry halls, cages and poultry equipment (drinking fountains, eateries, etc.) • Disinfection of livestock, maternity wards, calves and hospitals • Disinfection of protein transporter trucks • Disinfection of floors, boots and surfaces and equipment in food industry factories • Disinfection of vehicle entry ponds and livestock crossing in livestock and poultry farms and poultry hall entrance ponds. Advantages of using benzalkonium chloride over its competitors • Has a wide range of applications. • The product is liquid and can be used easily. This means that it can also be used as an injection. • It has good dispersing properties, i.e., it is an effective dispersant. • Its effectiveness in different ranges of PH. Side effects of using benzalkonium chloride Although benzalkonium chloride has historically been used as a preservative in ophthalmic procedures, its toxicity and irritating properties, along with consumer demands have led pharmaceutical companies to increase the production of preservative-free drugs or substances, and to replace the preservative with less harmful ones, because this substance may have many side effects and harms to its consumers. Many mass-market inhalants and nasal sprays contain benzalkonium chloride as a preservative, but despite significant evidences that can affect ciliary movement, muco-ciliary secretions, and tissue, nasal mucosal function, human neutrophil function, and leukocyte response to local inflammation adversely affects and harms the consumer. Although some studies have found no relation between the use of benzalkonium chloride in concentrations below 0.1% in nasal sprays and drug-induced rhinitis, some researchers have suggested that it should not be used in nasal sprays because it can cause problems, such as, respiratory problems for the person. • The use of benzalkonium chloride in normal concentrations stimulates the tissues of the middle ear and its toxicity will be harmful to the inner ear. • Exposure to this substance causes asthma in some people who in regular contact with it. • The effects of short-term exposure to benzalkonium chloride are corrosive to the eyes and irritates the skin. • Long-term effects due to repeated contact with benzalkonium chloride may cause dermatitis in some people. Conclusion this article explained about benzalkonium chloride; the procedure to make it, its different applications its advantages and disadvantages. If you are planning to buy various chemicals, such as, benzalkonium chloride in various ways, whether personally or online, it is better to make sure that the manufacturer or supplier is reputable, so that you can buy a qualified product.