Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric acid (V), is a weak acid with the chemical formula of H3PO4 and is commonly seen as a colorless liquid with a concentration of 85% in water.
All three hydrogens are acidic to varying degrees and can be removed from the molecule as +H ions (protons). When all three +H ions are removed, the result is an orthophosphate ion -PO43, commonly referred to as "phosphate".
Phosphoric acid is commonly found in chemical laboratories as an 85% aqueous solution, which is a colorless, odorless, non-volatile liquid. Although phosphoric acid does not meet the exact definition of a strong acid, 85% solution can still severely irritate the skin and harm the eyes.
To distinguish this particular acid from other "phosphoric acids", such as, pyrophosphoric acid, the name "orthophosphoric acid" can be used. However, the term "phosphoric acid" often means this particular compound. Phosphoric acid structure
|Chemical properties: |
Chemical name: Phosphoric acid
Molecular formula: H3PO4
Type: corrosive acid
Density, g / ml: 1.885
Percentage of solution: 85%
Melting point, 0C: 42
Welding temperature, 0C: 158
Molecular mass, g / mol: 98
Phosphoric Acid Industry: Problems and Solutions
Most commercial applications of phosphorus-containing materials include phosphoric acid other than fertilizer, an ingredient used in detergents, food and food processing, dental materials, detergents, metal surface cleaners and so on.
Article 2: Safety data sheet
According to the guidelines for the safety of this product, high consumption of this acid can have health issues.
A relation has been shown between regular and long-term alcohol consumption and osteoporosis in middle aged females (but not males).
At moderate concentrations, phosphoric acid solutions are irritating to the skin. Contact with concentrated solutions can cause severe skin burning and permanent eye damage.
Phosphoric acid in soft drinks can cause tooth decay. Phosphoric acid can also make kidney stones, especially in people with a record of previous kidney stones.
Sale market and application of phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid has a wide range of different applications and therefore has a wide and varied market. Most purchases of phosphoric acid are in the agricultural industry for fertilizer production. Approximately 90% of the phosphoric acid produced is used in this industry.
Also, this acid is usually used to add a sour taste to food. Food grade phosphoric acid (additive E338) is used to acidify foods and beverages, such as, cola and jams and to create a sour taste.
Non-alcoholic beverages containing phosphoric acid, which include Coca-Cola, are sometimes called phosphate drinks.
Phosphoric acid is one of the products of Padidavarandegan Jam Company, which due to its high quality and reasonable price have been able to gain a good position in domestic and foreign markets.
Some of the uses of phosphoric acid are as follows:
As a food additive
Phosphoric acid is used in the food industry to make acidic foods and carbonated beverages, including various types of cola. The use of this substance causes a spicy taste in food, and since this chemical is mass-produced, it is cheap and available.
The low price and high-volume production of this substance has made it superior to other natural flavors, such as, ginger to create a spicy taste, or citric acid in a variety of foods, such as, lemon juice to create a sour taste.
As a cleaning agent in medicine and dentistry
Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as a material to clean enamel and dentin and to decrease friction and tooth surface wearing.
In addition, due to its high hydrogen ion and less pollution than hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid is used as a catalyst in producing aspirin.
In medicine, this acid is known as orthophosphoric acid and its salt is called orthophosphate, which is one of the main treatments for kidney stones.
For use in agriculture
Phosphoric acid is mostly used in the preparation of agricultural fertilizers. Phosphorus is an important factor in plant growth that provides the energy needed for most of the reactions in living cells. As a result, soils with a Blatter phosphate source will increase plant growth.
Increasing the concentration of phosphate in water also causes more aquatic plants to grow. Residual chemical fertilizers that are added to water can also increase the growth of plants in lakes and rivers and thus increase the aquatic food.
However, increasing the concentration of phosphate and plant growth in these conditions also poses risks to the environment. As these plants die very quickly and use water to break down oxygen, they decrease the oxygen level of the water to the level that is no longer enough for aquatic animals.
Therefore, recently, instead of phosphate, other cleaners have been used that do not react with calcium, magnesium or hard water ions to reduce the amount of phosphate released into the environment.
To remove iron rust
Phosphoric acid can be used directly to remove iron rust or iron oxide formed on steel or iron tools. After cleaning the iron rust, the resulting iron phosphate can be used as a corrosion inhibitor.
Catalyst for the chemical industry
Phosphoric acid can be used as a catalyst in the petrochemical industry.