Maleic anhydride is one of the most important intermediate materials in the petrochemical industry that has a high annual consumption. Due to the use of a suitable catalyst, this substance is converted to its isomeric forms, namely fumaric acid and maleic acid.
The chemical formula of maleic anhydride is C2H2 (CO) 2O, which is a solid, odorless and colorless substance and is often used to make polymers.
Maleic anhydride is produced by vapor phase oxidation of n-Butane. The general process converts methyl groups to carboxylates and dehydrates the whole chain (dehydration). The selectivity of this process, with its conjugated two-link system reflects the strength of Maleic anhydride.
Maleic anhydride has traditionally been produced by using the oxidation of benzene or other aromatic compounds. While since 2006 there are only a few smaller plants that still continue to use benzene.
In both cases, benzene and butane enter the hot air stream and the mixture is transported through the catalyst bed at high temperature. The ratio of air to hydrocarbon is controlled to prevent the combustion of the mixture. Vanadium pentoxide and molybdenum trioxide are the catalysts used for the benzene pathway, while vanadium phosphate is used for the butane pathway to produce maleic anhydride. Maleic anhydride structure
Articles Article 1: Safety data sheet
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Chemical name: Maleic anhydride
Molecular formula: C4H2O3
Molecular weight: 98.057 g · mol − 1
Density: 1.48 g /cm3
Melting point: 52.8 ° C
Welding temperature: 202 ° C
Steam pressure: 0.2 mmHg (20 ° C)
Freezing point: 52. 2 ° C
According to the guidelines of the safety datasheet of this product, high consumption of this acid can have health risks. Maleic anhydride effect on health:
- This compound has relatively few environmental hazards and is known as a low-risk material, the important properties of which have led to its widespread use in some industries.
- Exposure to Maleic anhydride acid may irritate the respiratory tract, eyes, mucous membranes, and skin. This chemical can also make allergies due to respiration.
In case of fire:
- Maleic anhydride is rapidly hydrolyzed to form maleic acid in the presence of water. Therefore, it is unlikely to find pure maleic anhydride in the natural environment. Maleic acid is degradable under aerobic conditions in sewage sludge, as well as, in soil and water.
- Maleic anhydride fire extinguishers: water, foam, alcohol resistant foam, ABC powder
- Special hazards from hazardous combustion substances or a combination of them: Nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Advice in case of fire: In case of fire and / or explosion, do not breathe steam. Adjust fire extinguishing measurements with the environment around the fire. Do not allow fire extinguishers to enter drains or waterways. Collect contaminated water separately. Fight fire with the usual precautions from a reasonable distance. Packing and shipment tips:
- Liquid maleic anhydride is present in road tankers and / or reservoirs made of stainless steel, which is insulated and equipped with heating systems to maintain a temperature of 65-75 ° C. Tankers must be approved for transporting of melted maleic anhydride. Liquid/ melted maleic anhydride is a hazardous substance according to RID / ADR.
Solid maleic anhydride balls are transported by trucks. It’s generally packed in 25 kg polyethylene bags.
Sale market and application of maleic anhydride
About 50% of the world's maleic anhydride production is used to make unsaturated polyester (UPR) resins. Crushed glass fibers are added to the UPR to produce fiberglass-reinforced plastics, which are used in a wide range of applications, such as, yachts, baths, cars, tanks and pipes.
Considering the wide market for the sale of this product, both inside the country and for export, Padidavarandegan Jam Company produces Maleic Anhydride while maintaining the quality with a reasonable price and offers it to various domestic and foreign manufacturers.
Some of the applications of maleic anhydride are as follows: In the production of fibers and textile industries
Maleic anhydride is hydrogenated to 1,4-butanediol (BDO), which is used in the production of thermoplastic polyurethanes, elastane / spandex fibers, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resins and many other products. In food and confectionery industries
Maleic anhydride is used in food industries, such as, artificial sweeteners and flavor enhancers. In the production of hair cosmetics
Maleic anhydride is also used in hair spray and hair glue. In the production of pesticides and agricultural products
Maleic anhydride is used as a precursor in the production of detergents, insecticides and fungicides, and other copolymers.